Episiotomy research papers

Episiotomy care articles

Pain was not well assessed, and women's preferences were not reported. We observed good practice for data analysis and interpretation where trialists were review authors. Indications such as a prolonged second stage, macrosomia, non-reassuring fetal heart rate, instrumental delivery, occiput posterior position, pelvic delivery and shoulder dystocia have been questioned [ 9 ]. Distribution of genital tract trauma in childbirth and related postnatal pain. The sample of the study consisted of women. There are differences between episiotomy rates depending on the countries. The well-documented advantages of restricting the practice of episiotomy rather than encouraging its routine use include less risk of posterior perineal trauma and of severe perineal trauma. Both a tear and an episiotomy need sutures, and can result in severe pain, bleeding, infection, pain with sex, and can contribute to long term urinary incontinence.

Subgroup analyses by parity primiparae versus multiparae and by surgical method midline versus mediolateral episiotomy did not identify any modifying effects. Distribution of genital tract trauma in childbirth and related postnatal pain.

nice episiotomy

This intervention, known as an episiotomy, is used as a routine care policy during births in some countries. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials RCTs comparing selective versus routine use of episiotomy, irrespective of parity, setting or surgical type of episiotomy.

What evidence did we find?

routine episiotomy

The percentage of primiparous women in the study was Bull World Health Organ. On the other hand, an episiotomy guarantees perineal trauma and sutures.

consent for episiotomy

The primary perinatal outcomes were 1st and 5th minute Apgar scores; need for neonatal resuscitation and umbilical cord blood pH. There may be little or no difference in the number of women developing perineal infection two trials, low-certainty evidence ; and there is probably little or no difference in women reporting painful sexual intercourse six months or more after delivery three trials, women, moderate-certainty evidence ; for urinary incontinence six months or more after delivery, there may be little or no difference between the groups.

National episiotomy rate

A prospective observational study. For the experimental group, the healthcare professionals were instructed to base their management on the principle that episiotomy is unnecessary even in situations in which the literature suggests that it may confer some benefit. Why is this important? In conclusion, a non-episiotomy protocol appears to be safe for mother and child, and highlights the need to investigate whether there is, in fact, any indication for this procedure. This intervention, known as an episiotomy, is used as a routine care policy during births in some countries. In no cases were there any side effects worthy of note, and hospitalization never exceeded 72 hours. Balkaya Akdolun N. These are repaired surgically, but take time to heal. Other findings, both in the short or long term, provide no clear evidence that selective episiotomy policies results in harm to mother or baby. To avoid these severe tears, doctors have recommended making a surgical cut to the perineum with scissors or scalpel to prevent severe tearing and facilitate the birth. For pain, we do not know if selective episiotomy compared with routine results in fewer women with moderate or severe perineal pain measured on a visual analogue scale at three days postpartum RR 0. Examination of episiotomy rates from to Eight trials included primiparous women only, and four trials were in both primiparous and multiparous women. The percentage of primiparous women in the study was

Relationship between episiotomy and prevalence of urinary incontinence in women years after childbirth.

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Retrospective analysis of episiotomy prevalence